*I want to dedicate this post to every single person who completed my survey. Your responses helped me test my hypotheses, and understand the relationship between religion and politics. I am forever grateful to every single one of you. Thank you.*
I started this study with the aim to analyze the connection between religious beliefs and political beliefs. I was interested to see if the strength of one set of beliefs influenced the strength of the other. This was my main hypothesis. However, as I began compiling my survey, I became curious of other variables, and their effects. Did age play a role? What about gender? If someone isn’t religious, does that impact which political party they most agree with? Does different religious beliefs affect politics? Does religious beliefs influence more conservative or more liberal beliefs? And finally, does the amount of time one set of beliefs was held, impact the other?
I believed these variables would be statistically significant (important, statistically unique, different than normal). I thought the stronger someone believed one set of beliefs, the stronger the other set of beliefs would be. For example, I thought that if a Christian held very strong beliefs, they would also be a very strong, conservative Republican. (This was based on prior observations and patterns.). I thought age and gender played a role in each set of beliefs, but I was unsure to that role. I thought the type of religious belief, be it religious or non-religious, would have an impact, but I was unsure what that was. And I thought people that had beliefs from their family for one belief, would hold the other for the same reason.
Several prior studies influenced my knowledge prior to analyzing the results. For example, a study conducted by Driskell, Embry, and Lyon (2008) suggested that religious beliefs about an involved God and many world issues are significantly related to political participation on a national scale (Driskell, Embry & Lyon). Another study conducted by Evans (2014) concluded that religious people tend to disagree in terms of political policies, but they have the tendency to agree with the process of reaching those policies (Evans). Friesen and Ksiazkiewicz (2015) concluded that society functions the best when people follow traditional values, and also was able to conclude that individuals tend to interpret religion as an important guide for one’s life (Friesen and Ksiazkiewicz). Fitzgerald and Wickwire (2012) were able to conclude that people of specific religious and political groups tend to favor, or express more trust towards others of the same groups (Fitzgerald and Wickwire). Finally, Meyer, Tope, and Price (2008) concluded that nations of people who tend to be strongly religious are less favorable towards democracy (Meyer, Top & Price).
A total of 193 people responded to my survey. However, of the responses, 20 responses were discarded. These responses did not meet all the criteria, such as being 18 or older, or not providing all information. (All the surveys were completed. However, 18 of the 20 responses chose not to specify their religious affiliation. This was an optional spot, but was a factor I was interested in examining.). I chose 18 as the minimal age, because in America, that is the age when teenagers are allowed to vote. The vast majority of participants were female and between the ages of 18-30.
Of the participants who identified as religious, the vast majority specified their beliefs as “Christian” (non-denominational/ denominational). However, I also received responses such as “Catholic”, “Spiritual”, “Norse”, “Methodist”, “Mennonite”, “Christo-pagan”, “Baptist”, “Lutheran”, “Jewish”, “Former Mormon”, and even “Catholic with Celtic beliefs”. Of those that identified as non-religious, the most common responses were “Agnostic” and “Atheist”.
Politically, I asked participants which political party they most aligned with, and then asked them to place themselves on a conservative/liberal scale. I was interested to see if religious beliefs affected that ranking.
When gathering the responses, I was really focused on not getting a biased sample, such as too many millennials, or too many Christians, or too many Republicans, etc. (Given where I live, those would have been the most likely biases.). So, I placed my survey on my Facebook page, and thus it was shared by many of my friends. I also linked it in several of my blog posts. Finally, I asked one of my previous professors to pass it out to his students. The responses were kept completely anonymous, apart from asking for age and gender.
I was expecting my sample to slightly biased, with more Republican Christians. However, I was surprised to find that the split between Republican and Democrat beliefs to be rather equal.
When I had finished analyzing my results, I was disappointed to find my hypotheses were generally not statistically significant. *I’ll apologize here: I seem to have deleted the file with all my graphs and whatnot. So, unfortunately, I am unable to share with you any of the visual data.*. The strength between religious beliefs and political beliefs was not statistically significant. (For those of you interested, r=-.087.). This was fascinating to me, as I could see participants of similar religious beliefs rating the strength of that belief very high, but then ranking their political beliefs differently and opposite ends of the spectrum. Also, I saw many responses where on set of beliefs was ranked high, and the other was ranked low.
The effects between “religious and political beliefs” and “gender” were not statistically significant, and neither was the interaction between them. This was interesting, because based on previous patterns and observations, I expected females to be more religious, but also slightly more liberal.
When I analyzed the interaction between “religious beliefs”, “political beliefs”, and “age”, the interaction was not statistically significant. However, when I analyzed the main effect of “religious beliefs” on “age”, this was statistically significant. (For those interested, F (4, 170)= 2.76, p = .03, and h2 = 0.024.).
Finally, I analyzed the relationship between “religious beliefs” and “political beliefs”. This correlation was mildly statistically significant (r = .19 at p = .013). This was interesting, because it demonstrated there is indeed a relationship between “religious beliefs” and “political beliefs”.
*Unfortunately, I did not quite get the chance to analyze all the varied variables I wanted to, such as the different types of beliefs against political beliefs, or how long those beliefs were held against the strength of the beliefs. If I have the chance to re-do this study, I would fine tune the variables I want to explore. I made the mistake of adding more and more “variables” as my study went on. I didn’t start with a strict set of things to investigate, and I think that is why so many of potentially interesting insights were ignored. I ran out of time, and to a degree, resources, thus negatively effecting the validity of my results.*
I think, overall, this study brings some really interesting things to light. For example, I began to understand that the interpretation of religious texts is often more impactful than just the religious beliefs. There were participants who were nearly identical in religious beliefs and in their belief strength (sometimes even in age and gender), but completely opposite in terms of political beliefs and conservative/liberal ranking. (I may even be so bold as to say that it is this split in interpretation that is leading to the split in Christians today …… corresponding blog post to come …..)
Also, it is also possible that race, economic status, and living environment (rural, city, urban, etc.) further impact the relationship between religious and political beliefs.
I had quite a lot of fun organizing this study, analyzing the results, and understanding real life applications. It has opened the door to many other questions I would like to pursue, and may at some point.
I’d love to know your thoughts about these results. Do you think there is a bigger connection between religious beliefs and political beliefs? Or do you think it’s smaller?
Ciao for now,
P.S. I am interested in do a post on modesty, but from guys’ perspectives. If you are a single, or yet unmarried Christian guy, I’d be honored if you’d fill out this short questionnaire. Please pass it around to your friends! I will be giving credit where credit is due! Thank you!